Wednesday, 12 July 2017

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he Jantar Mantar monument in Jaipur, Rajasthan may be a assortment of 19 subject area astronomical instruments, engineered by the Hindu king Sawai Jai Singh II, and completed in 1734 metallic element. It options the world's largest stone timekeeper, and may be a United Nations agency World Heritage website. situated close to town Palace and Hawa Mahal of Jaipur, the monument options masonry, stone and brass instruments that were engineered exploitation uranology and instrument style principles of ancient Hindu Sanskritic language texts. The instruments enable the observation of astronomical positions with the eye. The monument expresses subject area innovations, further because the returning along of concepts from completely different non secular and social beliefs in eighteenth century Republic of India. The observatory is associate example of the Ptolemaic point uranology that was shared by several civilizations. The monument options instruments operational in every of the 3 main classical celestial coordinate systems: the horizon-zenith native system, the equatorial system and also the great circle system.
The Kapala Yantraprakara is one that works in 2 systems and permits transformation of the coordinates directly from one system to the opposite. The monument was broken within the nineteenth century. Early restoration work was undertaken under the supervision of Major Arthur Garrett, a keen amateur astronomer, during his appointment as Assistant State Engineer for the Jaipur District. The name is derived from jantar (yantra, Sanskrit: यन्त्र, "instrument, machine"), and mantar (from mantrana, Sanskrit: मन्त्रण, "consult, calculate"). Therefore Jantar Mantar literally means 'calculating instrument'.The Vedas mention astronomical terms, measurement of time and calendar, but do not mention any astronomical instruments. The earliest discussion of astronomical instruments, gnomon and clepsydra, is found in the Vedangas, ancient Sanskrit texts. The gnomon (called Shanku, शङ्कु) found at Jantar Mantar monument is discussed in these 1st millennium BCE Vedangas and in many later texts such as the Katyayana sulbasutras.
Other discussions of astronomical instruments are found in Hinduism texts such as the 4th century BCE Arthashastra, Buddhist texts like Sardulakarna-avadana, and Jainism texts like Surya-prajnapti. The theories behind the instruments ar found in texts by the fifth century metallic element Aryabhatta, sixth century metallic element Brahmagupta and Varahamihira, ninth century Lalla, eleventh century Sripati and Bhaskara. The texts of Bhaskara have dedicated chapters on instruments and he calls them Yantra-adhyaya. the speculation of chakra-yantra, yasti-yantra, dhanur-yantra, kapala-yantra, nadivalaya-yantra, kartari-yantra et al ar found within the ancient texts.

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